The Vedas of Hinduism are considered to be the first scriptures of the world. It is believed that other religions in the world originated on the basis of the Vedas of Sanatan Dharma and they popularized the knowledge contained in the Vedas by explaining them in different languages that suited them.
The Vedas were written based on the knowledge imparted by God to sages. That is why the Vedas are called Shruti. Veda means knowledge. Vedas are an immense storehouse of ancient knowledge.
The solution to every problem of human life is mentioned in the Vedas. Vedas are full of knowledge related to Brahma (God), gods, the universe, astrology, mathematics, chemistry, medicine, nature, astronomy, geography, religious rules, history, customs, etc.
The main Vedas of Hinduism are Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvaveda. According to the verse of Shatapatha Brahmana, it is mentioned that Agni, Vayu, Aditya, and Angira obtained the four Vedas through penance. The three Vedas (Rigveda, Yajurveda, and Samaveda) are believed to have originated from Agni, Vayu, Surya (Aditya), and Atharvaveda from Angira. Vedas are considered to be the most ancient books. Therefore, it is natural that the names of any person and place are related to the Vedas. Even today people and places are named after the words found in Ramayana, Mahabharata, etc.
Vedas are considered the oldest written documents of human civilization. 28,000 manuscripts of the Vedas have been preserved at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune, India. It is said that 30 manuscripts of Rigveda are very important. UNESCO has put it on the world heritage list. UNESCO has listed 30 manuscripts of the Rigveda from 1800 to 1500 BC as cultural heritage.
Upaveda of the Vedas:
Ayurveda of Rigveda, Dhanurveda of Yajurveda, Gandharvaveda of Samaveda, and Sthapatyaveda of Atharvaveda are Upavedas.
Four divisions of the Vedas
Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. Rig-position, Yaju-transformation, Sama-dynamic, and Atharva-solid. Rik is also called Dharma, Yujha is called Moksha, Sama is called Kama, and Atharva is also called Artha. Based on this, Dharmashastra, Arthashastra, Kamasastra, and Mokshashastra were composed.
Rik means status and knowledge. Rig Veda is considered as the first Veda. This Veda is poetic. There are 1028 sukta in its 10 mandalas (chapters). It has 11 thousand mantras. There are 5 branches of this Veda. Shakalpa, Vaskal, Ashvalayana, Shankhayana, and Mandukayana are the five branches. It contains much other knowledge along with mantras related to geographical location and invocation of gods. In the Richa of the Rigveda, the prayers of the deities, their praises, and their position in Devloka are described. From this, you can get information about hydrotherapy, air therapy, mental therapy, and havan therapy. In the 10th chapter of the Rigveda, there is information about medicine sukta, i.e. herbs. It has knowledge about more than 125 medicines. Which is found in one hundred and seven places. Soma is specifically described in medicine. There is also a story in Rigveda that Sage Chyavana was brought back to his youth.
Meaning of Yajurveda, Yat + Ju = Yaju. ‘Yat’ means moving and ‘ju’ means sky. In addition to this, Karma, the inspiration of the best Karma, the Yajurveda method of Yajna, and mantras used in Yajna are mentioned in this Veda. Along with the Yajna, there is also a description of Tattva Gnana in the Yajurveda. Tattva knowledge means mysterious knowledge. This Veda, which contains the knowledge of Brahman, soul, God and matter, is written in prose. It contains prose mantras for the proper procedure of Yagya. The two branches of this Veda are Shukla and Krishna.
Krishna: It is mentioned that the sage Vaishampayan was related to Krishna. Krishna also has four branches.
Shukla: Sage Yajnavalkya is believed to be related to Shukla. Shukla has two branches. It has 40 chapters. In addition to this, all the subjects of divine medicine and agricultural science are included in it.
Sam means transformation and music. Gentleness and worship are also there. This Veda is also a musical version of the verses of the Rigveda. Samaveda is musical i.e. form of song. This Veda is considered the root of music science. In this Veda which has 1824 mantras, if we leave 75 mantras, all the remaining mantras are found to be taken from Rigveda. In it, Savita, Agni, and Indra are specially mentioned. This Veda has three branches and 75 riches.
Tharva means vibration and Atharva means non-vibration. He who engages in the worship of God by doing deeds superior to knowledge attains unwavering wisdom and attains salvation. From this Veda, one can get the knowledge of secret knowledge, herbs, miracles and Ayurveda, etc. There are 5687 mantras in its 20 chapters. It has eight volumes, in which the names of Veshaja Veda and Dhatu Veda are found.